The smart Trick of red brand canners hbr case solution That Nobody is Discussing



Reply to this comment Elehcim February 18, fifteen:fifty three I am also concerned about GMO’s and steer clear of it. The only cause why I'd personally stay clear of having excessive meals that's not Non-GMO Qualified is that if I is not going to eat them goods just before they go undesirable.

Remove the bag of spices. Warmth the relish to boiling, stirring as essential to protect against burning.  If you like a thicker relish, simmer somewhat lengthier (A further 15 minutes) to Carefully boil off some of the drinking water.

Packaging will be the transfer of your mixed fermentation/sour/funky beer from the fermentation or getting old vessel into your the ultimate bundle (e.g. a bottle or perhaps a keg). This page will discuss many issues 1 should look at for instance when to package, how to bundle and what last deal to put the beer into.

I too am a senior lady that has had to downsize into an apartment. (I don’t like it) I purchased a propane 4 burner camp stove with legs that screw into the frame, which elevated the stove into a stage a lot easier within the back.

why we have to water continually? why they die in the 1st warmth wave? these are definitely plants we’ve decided on for coloration Which last very long about the shelf, they don't seem to be confirmed.. At any time surprise why you'll be able to not plant seeds from an apple tree anymore and obtain an apple tree? Why apple trees or corn is barely found in a store now? Why our farm animals are having diseases and need vaccines and medication now?

I think It really is usually Safe and sound to exchange like with like; sizzling peppers to exchange eco-friendly peppers, raspberries as an alternative to blackberries, lemons rather than limes, and many others.  So, within your case, I think you can be fantastic for those who substitute several of the moderate peppers with an equivalent degree of very hot peppers!

This method hasn't however been validated so far as developing the correct pitching level for re-yeasting, that is one million cells for every mL of beer.

Don’t overlook excellent old store-acquired canned goods nevertheless. These may have an impressive shelf life, they’re cheap plus a nicely-picked stock of these can include wide range and nutrients to your diet plan inside the months or maybe many years once the SHTF.

It’s also tasty and might be eaten ideal with the can if vital. In any other case it’s a great way to increase flavor to rice, beans or maybe pasta – a fifteen oz can and four cups of rice will feed a spouse and children. The chili by itself also has an honest amount of fiber, in addition to protein and energy. 

What's the main difference? and why is that negative? I do think folks have witnessed to a lot of movies..attack from the killer tomatoes or some detail. 90% + of almost everything you touch every day has “not been pout there In a natural way” irrespective of whether your mattress, your automobile, your kitchen things… and all the food items you eat. I support GMO engineering and innovation.

I'm considering canned salmon recipes besides just eating the salmon out of the can. Any solutions or references? Very simple is healthier. Not really enthusiastic about 20 component all day prep.

Add the yeast slurry just before the transfer is concluded as this will aid include the slurry. Carbonation takes place the same working day as packaging if carried out accurately.

For more information on when mixed fermentation beers are all set to package deal according to flavor, see the assorted Brewing Approaches web pages. To find out more on aging and cellaring packaged beer, see Getting older and Storage. Clarity and pellicles

Reply to this comment Teddy December 20, 05:forty I designed and canned ketchup numerous years in the past. I do know of check it out oldsters that have canned tomatoes. Actually, I wouldn’t visit the hassle to generate and will ketchup once more, but happy I did it them.

Detailed Notes on red brand canners case solution



Forstchen? EMP’s will build very long-lasting injury that might incapacitate Digital techniques across the nation and forever adjust our technique for existence. Cyber-threats are Yet another issue and somebody with major hacking skills could easily consider out computer systems, networks or data stored therein to lead to lasting harm to our means of existence.

 For additional crisis preparedness strategies, homesteading Strategies, and insights. For a subscriber to her free publication you’ll acquire the newest updates from her 52 Weeks to Preparedness Crisis Preparedness and Disaster Organizing Collection. It’s perfectly worthy of your time and efforts, and oh, did we mention it’s totally absolutely free?

Numerous websites give the hook, then go on and on about how excellent the information is, imagining it’s one thing it is possible to “make” for yourself, only to own to purchase a little something. Ugh!!!

Seemingly, progress hormone is prohibited in poultry, but lawful in cattle, exactly where the hormone pellet is implanted while in the cattle’s ears.(The ears aren’t Employed in foods.)

The writer may or may not Possess a fiscal interest in any enterprise or advertiser referenced. Any action taken Because of this of knowledge, analysis, or ad on This website is eventually the accountability on the reader.

What a joke! eighty five% of your inhabitants can’t see via snake oil when it bites then about the nose. And In this particular case the snake oil you are now being sold is the hazards of GMO’s, that “natural and organic” is healthier…BS! Because a farm is certified “natural” they remain allowed to use fertilizers and pesticides. And in many cases if they didn’t, How would you Believe they could avoid the drift from the pesticides and fertilizers coming over the fence from another farm? There exists a great deal of BS take a look at how commercially developed food stuff will not be as nutritious as “organically” developed as the soil had shed the appropriate nutrients so the vegetation don’t have them both. I hate to interrupt it to you personally but plants received’t develop and prosper if they might’t take in the correct nutrients from your soil, much like individuals won’t improve whenever they don’t have the appropriate nutrients within their diet program. Plants have the ability to make a lot of the nutrients they will need with just daylight and drinking water. Am

It hasn't detected any CO in the home, and Certainly I analyzed it. In my garage, With all the doorway remaining vast open up, the detector lit up similar to a Xmas tree Once i pulled my motor vehicle in and remaining the engine functioning for possibly a further ten seconds.

Merely not legitimate. They are going to run the diesel pumps / generators to maintain the Main amazing. If Uncle Sam ought to confiscate diesel to maintain them functioning it will eventually.

We do like sugar and I can remember definitely savoring the canned fruit after a extended, difficult, hot day. It absolutely was seriously luxurious to sit back and luxuriate in a can of amazing fruit cocktail or canned peaches. You’re scorching, exhausted, sweaty, smelly, coated with dust from head on your boondockers plus the style of that fruit sliding down your throat was a lot better than the best champagne.

chili, stew and in many cases soups. They may have loads of protein and fiber, they’re tasty and they may be perked up with your preferred seasonings. Most grocery suppliers have an economic system brand that sells for not a great deal, so there’s no reason not to have a couple of cases of those in the retailer. 

So I will get meals for my relatives in anyplace I'm able to ( not towards the law).If I may get a merchandise for under half of those who a organic and natural . I have to go cheep so I could get a lot more. But I do increase my very own veggies., pork and beef are shared from a very Good sister below in the north. and goats and ducks are all Prepared for when we'd like them.

Boils drinking water in under five minutes with small fuel – twigs,moss, leaves, grass, outdated paper – you title it. Cooks an easy meal very easily way too, even inside of a storm. These have already been employed for centuries by Cornish/Irish fishermen. On a serious Be aware – a chance to boil a number of pints of h2o quickly are going to be vital for 1st aid/anybody with Young ones. My website here 7 yr old with Autism may get the hearth begun, boil a brew and Prepare dinner an easy meal on it. It’s not as trendy or recognized as all those newfangled tenting stoves that only use extravagant fuel blocks/gas cans etcetera but Granddads to start with just one lasted him around sixty five many years prior to my Uncle took it to make use of when he passed on. From time to time the old techniques is the best/easiest way In terms of simple technological innovation.

That’s what Ferfal claims, that hard cash will be king for the reason that checks and bank cards might be ineffective. Just how long money stays over the throne is an additional Tale.

Scotty: That’s all I can give you, Captain. She’s holdin’ at a gentle one hundred twenty%. Kirkbama: That’ll really need to do. Sulu! Focus on the primary occupation building forces on the planet…and change all electricity for the unemployment beam generator. Bones! Is the fact that mutated virus ready?

Rumored Buzz on red brand canners case analysis



February fourteen, 2012 at 9:55 pm Noname, I believe the G-person who made use of the text”…last minute use.” was infering the two paper and coin use inside the period correct right after a power decline. So if the electric power is out short-term because of regional disorders or really long lasting to regional / nationwide / SHTF problems; you might get some valuable use out of the current funds just before a ‘barter’ economy goes into use.

But In addition to the mercury concern, salmon isn’t out there all yr close to. And salmon is much dearer.

Scanner Info. Suppliers and manufacturers currently are able to make strategic conclusions dependant on facts from rate scannings at checkout counters. Wal-Mart, one example is, has looked at which products and solutions tend to be obtained together.

[134] On eight August 2016, the Israeli Health minister suspended a manufacturing licence till Unilever perform a variety of corrections; the action arrived right after an inspection on the Arad plant, stating "This was a series of negligent errors, and never an incident with destructive intent with the company's administration and top quality control procedures."[135] An investigation led by Prof. Itamr Grutto and Eli Gordon concluded that the occasion was a result of carelessness.[136]

Environment advertising and marketing targets. The initial step requires environment probably the most appropriate advertising goals. These goals should be reasonably certain and workable; So, basically expressing that the intention is to maximize revenue will not be adequate. How

And that’s precisely how factors turned out. People today shared their stories of woe, Edison promised to produce fantastic the losses they ended up answerable for, but very little occurred in any way.

Slotting Fees. Considering the fact that vendors are available lots of a lot more merchandise than they might carry, they usually have an excessive amount of bargaining power with suppliers. Stores in many cases are hesitant to accept a completely new merchandise that may or may not be prosperous. Often, when a new item is released, suppliers are requested to pay a “slotting” rate to acquire access to the retailer’s shelves. This could feel unfair initially, but two information need to be considered: (one) The retailer is getting a chance by Placing out the solution, probably changing an current product on which it has at least damaged even. (two) Slotting costs may perhaps compensate the retailer for supplied Room into a gradual-going item category. If the retailer couldn't cost a slotting charge, it'd elect to commit almost all of its shelf-Area to key countrywide brands that may “switch” additional immediately.

Food can also need to have a unique kind of positioning based on utilization event. Tang, for instance, is positioned as a cheap and effortless drink during the U.S. In Brazil, serious orange juice is more affordable and readily available within the streets. As a result, such a positioning wouldn't function.

Axe, generally known as Lynx in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Eire, Australia and New Zealand, is really a toiletries brand promoted in direction of youthful Adult men involving the age of sixteen and 24.[108] Its marketing and advertising is really a "tongue-in-cheek take on the 'mating video game'", suggesting that Gals are immediately drawn to Males utilizing the products and solutions.[109][one hundred ten] In contrast to Dove's very long functioning beauty campaign Lynx advertising often makes mini series of commercials primarily based all over a singular product or service in lieu of communicating an overarching thought. This marketing campaign thrives on controversy.

In my view, you need to design a procedure that will offer ample electricity for a little window A/C unit, so that you have cooling capacity for one particular space at the very least.

I ought to top rated it off now..but like all else, you realize the S**t will materialize after we’re about 50 % total.

Frankly, The problem is your substantial triglycerides, not your high cholesterol. An exceedingly reduced-carb diet plan will lower your triglyceride level Similar to a ROCK. As for the sardines, The important thing is a lot more what they are packed in oil (olive or other or drinking water). Drinking water is finest, olive oil is 2nd most effective, and other oils worst. That’s mainly because oils detract from your Omega three/six ratio.

Boils drinking water in lower than 5 minutes with small fuel – twigs,moss, leaves, grass, outdated paper – you title it. Cooks an easy food effortlessly way too, even inside a storm. These have already been utilised for hundreds of years by Cornish/Irish fishermen. On a serious note – the opportunity to boil a number of pints of drinking water swiftly will probably be crucial for first help/everyone with Young children. My 7 yr aged with Autism could get the fireplace started off, boil a brew and cook a straightforward meal on it. It’s not as trendy or my explanation well-known as all These newfangled camping stoves that only use extravagant gasoline blocks/gas cans etc but Granddads first a single lasted him about 65 a long time prior to my Uncle took it to implement when he passed on. Occasionally the outdated techniques is the best/most basic way On the subject of standard know-how.

Slideshare takes advantage of cookies to further improve performance and effectiveness, also to provide you with suitable advertising and marketing. For those who go on browsing the internet site, you comply with the usage of cookies on this website. See our Consumer Arrangement and Privacy Coverage.

5 Simple Statements About red brand canners hbr case solution Explained



It contains the next: 50 % pint whole milk. Two ounces lean meat, poultry, fish or cheese, or 1 egg, or perhaps a 50 % cup cooked dry beans or peas or four tablespoons peanut butter. 3-fourths cup of vegetable or fruit and one or more parts of bread with two tablespoons butter or fortified margarine. One of several cold lunches which will be served to small children in the town's educational facilities this drop includes a tough-cooked egg, a complete wheat bread and butter sandwich, a sandwich of white bread, butter and marmalade, tomato wedges, ice cream and a 50 % pint of milk. A hot meal features soya, macaroni and vegetable soup, a sandwich of sliced American cheese with mustard nut butter on full wheat bread, an orange along with a half pint of milk...A glance into lunch packing containers children start toting to high school upcoming month will show how well-known peanut butter happens to be. Studies take care of for every capita use at a single and just one-third pounds yearly, but in all probability the younger fry account for greater than their share of the."

"Instructors in colleges in which lunches were served observed that little ones obtained in pounds, missing inferiority which that they had felt among the classmates, and became extra inform and keen on college operate. A county superintendent in Alabama chlaimed to have been in the position to inform where luncheon tasks ended up operating basically by investigating attendance records...There were aso indirect advantages of the plan.

And they are professional cans–my house canned foods in glass jars?? Good for twenty a long time not less than.

The ease-of-use is unquestionably the strongest stage of this device and it can easily get just a few several hours to endure a lot more than a hundred slides. All in all, this is a superb acquire for The cash mainly because it’s executing A fast scanning task and it doesn’t consider much too prolonged to determine.

Jim P June 27, seventeen:43 Nola, when I was a youngster while in the 50’s there have been predicted massive famines with the change on the century because of the inability to make adequate food for that predicted population close to 2000. With modern technologies we could increase grains like wheat, rice, corn and others in areas of the earth that could not sustain their development sixty many years back and the rise in productivity of foods crops in parts of the planet that were in peril has freed us through the predicted famines and tens of millions of deaths from starvation.

Reply to this comment NY Oathkeeper February 27, 19:ten Great occupation lucy.There is an excellent distinction between crossing existence kinds that may cross In a natural way and ones forced by gene manipulation that might in no way come about in mother nature.Essential phrases below in no way happen in nature…Enjoy the doc Seeds of Loss of life. excellent info for ya.

Increase some egg and blend properly. Variety into patties and check out as part of your very good old Forged iron skillet with olive oil or vegetable oil having a pat of butter extra for taste and awesome golden coloration. Use this similar Primary recipe with canned chicken or turkey far too. Feel free to experiment. Satisfied prepping! I'm just getting going.

I have diced and full tomatoes however in cans shelved for more than 6 yrs also, and canned fruit, not pears.

November 21, 2010 at 5:09 pm Responses…..wheat may be stored for pretty much centuries..floor as flour or total.. rice also stores nicely..get some gallon pickle jars..nearby eateries are joyful to give them away.. clean and dry them important site entirely.then place in a bit of dry ice..pour the rice on top of that, increase a handfull of salt and PRESTO…it's going to retain For the remainder of your life..the salt incorporates a double operate..it will eventually draw any humidity out of your jar/rice to circumvent rotting and it will even be a necessary commodity when TSHTF and You begin to make use of these jars.. dried beans are a cheap way to get food items saved In case you are seeing your pennies. In addition, you need to purchase some garden seeds, a lot of salt/pepper/seasonings and so on. Right here is an additional trace…meat…if you need to maintain meat..pork is effective perfectly for this… Prepare dinner the meat throughly…salt it heavily as you are doing so and after that set it along with each of the grease into sterilized (boiling hot) canning jars even though it truly is sizzling warm…pop on a lid and seal it..You should utilize your canned pork (include some smoke seasoning to it for a pleasant touch) for at least a couple of years should you store it within a neat darkish position…my spouse and children did that in the depression.

It is possible to see the Amazon rate by hovering above the “store now” button in the bottom correct corner of the image. Mobile users: the preview function may or may not work for you, and regrettably, I haven't any way to regulate if it does or doesn’t. Sorry.

Reply to this comment SA December 22, eighteen:24 Expanding up within a family members of 5, I'd no idea we ended up meat bad. Today, I like all canned meats because that’s what we ate weekly. I wish my mom had regarded how to create a salmon patty in lieu of just dumping some flakes on a plate along with a dollop of yellow mustard. By the way, canned corn beef hash got a dollop of catsup. I’ve always prevented the creepy silver-black salmon pores and skin, but then I’ve under no circumstances starved. Only immediately after I used to be married did I discover that you might have multiple difficult, slender pork chop at supper. Which was a revelation. About 35 many years in the past, standing while in the grocery Verify-out line, a person who labored for Tyson began up a conversation. Instructed me that canned chicken was old, stringy, tired, worn-out levels.

The investigation, based upon independent laboratory analysis of university lunches, also exposed that several of the foods did not satisfy the processors' claims for vitamin written content. The investigation also identified that school small children remaining a large amouint of their lunches uneaten, leading to the squander of countless pounds and an additional reduction in nourishment. Reporters observed the waste was due partially into the tradiional problem of acquiring young children to consume their stringbeans also to the unappetizing character of your mass produced lunches. Responding for the GAO examine, the Agriculture Department's Foodstuff and Nourishment Assistance, which operates the lunch method, contended that 'ther aren't any means of addressign these problems shot of abandoning nationally setablished food criteria.'"

Because of the velocity-load adapters, the scanning method is very simple and easy. Just push the adapters into the product and feed Every single slide or detrimental one after the other.

Reply to this remark Angela K June fifteen, 19:forty four Yep. This human being has it right on. We’re chatting the legitimate Truth below! That is what it will truly be like just after people today uncover no electrical energy for his or her hoarded dehydrator. No infant bottle heaters would operate . Mabye the lazies would have to actually scrounge in trash dumps for outdated canned foods.

5 Easy Facts About red brand canners case analysis Described



  Floor rims on other kinds of mouth-blown bottles ended up mostly a late nineteenth (1880s and later on) to early 20th century (mid to late 1910s) attribute and most often (but not exclusively) noticed on liquor flasks (usually just higher than molded exterior screw threads), inks, and ointment jars created for the duration of that period.  Begin to see the "floor complete" discussion to the Bottle Finish Kinds or Kinds webpage To learn more.  Click on the next website link to watch an 1888 patent for just a "Glass-Grinding Machine" which exhibits a fruit jar set up possessing its rim floor down:  Patent #386,738 - Glass-Grinding Device, July 24, 1888.

A lesser recognised though sizeable technique for stepping into the house was that canning jars had been also routinely bought by the foods packing trade and bought to customers with many food merchandise packed inside of.  Foodstuff packers "...regarded the value of offering The patron a re-usable home canning jar coupled with their solution" so canning jars were being also commonly industrial meals containers (Caniff 1997).  Click on the subsequent one-way links to view an illustration of a LAFAYETTE fruit jar (an illustration is pictured to your significantly correct while in the impression previously mentioned) which was used by a meals packer for pickles: view of your complete jar with embossing to the camera; perspective from the label within the reverse; view on the bead fashion end without the closure.

In the course of the last 50 percent from the 19th century bottles shaped like that shown listed here had been a dominant model/form used for a variety of spices together with other condiments and foods goods which might in shape.  These unconventional 8-sided bottles (foundation see below) have broad, concave front and back panels with flat slim aspect panels sure collectively by comparatively vast, concavely beveled corners.

Begin to see the introduction to this "Canning Jars" area previously mentioned for basic producing related diagnostic relationship facts for canning jars.

The bottle pictured for the left is an average sq. salad oil bottle that is certainly practically identical to some square liquor/spirits bottles from your early twentieth century.  Click tall square lengthy-necked spirits bottles to check out an Nearly identical shape bottle used by a San Francisco, CA. liquor enterprise for their item(s) in the early 1900s.  The pictured bottle previously mentioned is embossed vertically with PRIMROSE / REGISTERED / BRAND / WESTERN MEAT Firm.   This is known to generally be a salad dressing bottle as other variants are embossed with PRIMROSE SALAD OIL (Zumwalt 1980).  Like its liquor bottle kinfolk, this salad oil bottle was blown within a cup-bottom mildew, features a tooled brandy end, and plentiful air venting marks on the shoulders, physique edges, and integrated throughout the embossing; it Nearly undoubtedly dates from involving 1905 and 1920.

Tomato ketchup/catsup (equally spellings are suitable and applied interchangeably here) was contained inside of a reasonably diverse array of different shaped bottles, though there are a few models which are strongly identified With all the solution.  For instance, the bottle to the still left is usually a classic and distinctly formed style used for ketchup for an incredibly extensive length of time.  Most of the time, ketchup bottles are comparatively tall and slender (a standard peak of at least 3 times your body or base diameter) and have a reasonably slender mouth or bore for the scale in the bottle.  The most typical styles (like a lot of the examples pictured below) also have a protracted gradually tapering shoulder to neck portion that's distinctly taller than the human body portion down below it.

The labeled mouth-blown horse radish bottle pictured to the correct (Picture from eBay®) was used by the foodstuff packing and preservation worry of E. C. Flaccus & Co. (Wheeling, WV.).  E. C. Flaccus was first outlined as in organization in 1898 and operated right until 1920.  The stag's head trademark was registered in 1907 but mentioned that it were "utilised ten a long time" at that time (Zumwalt 1980; Caniff 1997).  This bottle has the typical horseradish condition Together with the ring at or near the neck/shoulder junction, is rectangular in cross-portion, incorporates a tooled just one-part flat sided "packer" end, and was Practically surely blown in a cup-base mould with air venting.

  Most of the time, the dating of such form bottles determined by production related diagnostic characteristics follows very well the rules presented during this website and summarized to the Bottle Dating page; see that web page To find out more.

Really equivalent formed mustard bottles of French origin with pontil scars ended up observed around the Steamship Bertrand which sank in the Missouri River in April 1865.  These mustard bottles had been Amongst the hardly any bottle styles salvaged from that ship that exhibited pontil scars when this creator viewed the collection in Iowa not too long ago (empirical observations 2015).

The example pictured (over the rim with the Holliday Dairy bottle discussed earlier) is strange as it's a month code of two (February) superimposed about a ten (Oct) and a calendar year code of five (1925) superimposed about a four (1924).  Reminiscent of an "overdate" while in the coin environment, this re-engraving was accomplished to "update" the finish developing ring mould from the day of October 1924 to February 1925.   Up to now, the earliest date code determined with a milk bottles has become August 1923 While earlier dates are doable.  Thus far these codes have only been observed on milk bottles made by Californian glass factories for Western dairies, and however generally encountered, not all West Coastline dairy bottles have rim codes throughout the noted time variety (Schulz et al.

   A noteworthy exception to this courting is the fact that various distinctive kinds of groove-ring wax seal Ball Normal  jars were truly a lot of the earliest semi-computerized device made jars, remaining initial generated in 1896 continuing until eventually about 1912 (Toulouse 1969a; Creswick 1987).  These jars exhibit device-made diagnostic features and so are the one acknowledged wax seal jars produced by machine (Creswick 1987); see the machine-manufactured bottles part of the dating important.  Click Ball Common quart jar to look at an case in point with a few the equipment-manufactured functions identified, i.e., the neck ring seam and foundation valve mark.

Numerous (most?) on the mouth-blown capers bottles found in the U. S. were imported from Europe as France seems to have been the first producer, processor, and packer of capers throughout pop over here the period of such bottles.  Most of the initially labeled bottles observed from the creator Take note which the product or service was "French Capers," including equally bottles illustrating this area.  On top of that, lots of the illustrations that have embossed organization names indicates a French origin (Zumwalt 1980).  Despite the fact that these bottles have been apparently made by at least one among the most important U. S. glass makers (Illinois Glass Organization) capers bottles were apparently a non-normal supplying by most bottle makers, as indicated by a research of a number of dozen 1890s to 1930s bottle makers catalogs within the authors possession (as famous to the References website page).

The around seven" tall capers bottle pictured over is regular of the commonest mouth-blown type with a tooled just one aspect packer (or patent) complete, molded ring around the decreased neck, deep environmentally friendly color, and generated in a cup-bottom mould Nearly certainly with air venting.  (Images from eBay®)  The really tall (twelve") capers variation pictured to the proper is embossed vertically to the "slender extensive facet" with J. P. SMITH and it has the original label indicating its use for capers.  (Photo courtesy of Glass Performs Auctions.)  This example incorporates a tooled straight end, was probably blown in a cup-bottom mould (air venting standing not known), and sure dates through the 1885 to 1900 period.

  Mustard was also considered a treatment for ailments starting from congestion to hysteria, snakebite to bubonic plague (Gerth 2006).   Although bottled in many different extensive mouth, typically squatty bottles, mustard was commonly bottled in barrel styles for much in the period of time lined by this Web site.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15